Psilocybe bohemica

Another interesting European species with strong psychoactivity is Psilocybe bohemica Sebek (9, 10).

These mushrooms were already found in Czechoslovakia near Sazava in 1942. They blue consistently after bruising and spontaneously in the age. The fruit bodies grow up to 15 cm high on humus and wood chips in the woods.

The species is widespread in Czechoslovakia (9) and it will probably be reported from many other European countries in the next years. Recent finds in Austria and Germany support this claim.

The analysis of fruit bodies revealed psilocybin, baeocystin and in some cases psilocin. Psilocybin levels varied from 0.11% up to 1.34% by dry weight (9). The content of psilocybin and baeocystin was highest in the caps of the mushrooms (table 2).

A rhizomorphic to closely linear growth on the blueing mycelia was observed on soaked unsterilized cardboard

Fruiting of the mycelia on rice grain/water mixture occurred without casing 12 weeks after inoculation (figure 5) but only if a temperature of 4øC was maintained for 3 days at the end of cultivation. This observation is in agreement with the occurrence on the naturally grown fruiting bodies in late autumn and early winter. Wild mushrooms of this species, differing from the cultivated mushrooms mainly by the absence of the 2 rings and the less robust habitat, have very similar other features, microscopic ones and the blueing in particular. The species required diffuse day light for pinhead initiation. Growth of the vegetative mycelia was observed on malt agar at 4øC.

Mycelium from Psilocybe bohemica (GARTZ & MUELLER, 1989) on 4% malt agar was used to inoculate a rye grain/water mixture identically to the cultivation of other Psilocybe species (GARTZ, 1995).
The cultivation on sawdust soaked with water in plastic bags and later on commercial garden mulch was already described in the case of Psilocybe azurescens STAMETS & GARTZ (GARTZ, 1995). The duration of the rye based spawn was 6 weeks and of the sawdust mixture 8 weeks.
Then the mulch was spawned in March 1988. In October/November 1989 22 mushrooms appeared on the garden mulch without casing. For additional 5 years 10 up to 33 mushrooms were harvested each year from this German location always in November.
The mushrooms were dried or analysis and analysed as described earlier (GARTZ & MUELLER, 1989).
Laboratory cultivation for the production of fruit bodies of "typical" Psilocybe cyanescens from the Pacific Northwest U.S.A. was also attempted. Mycelial cultures were isolated from spores of a dried mushroom (Mason County, 1984) as described earlier for Psilocybe bohemica (GARTZ & MUELLER, 1989).
After a 4 weeks cultivation of the mycelia on a 4% malt agar a sterile mixture of 100 g soft rice and 180 ml water was inoculated. The cultivation temperature of 23°C was decreased to 10°C after 10 weeks and this temperature was maintained until the beginning of the fruiting process (2 weeks).
The culture continued to produce mushrooms in additional 3 flushes at temperature from 8 to 14°C.
A similar fruiting of Psilocybe bohemica (GARTZ & MUELLER, 1989) produced 8 mushrooms in 3 flushes which were analysed like other psilocybian species (GARTZ, 1991, 1995).